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ISSN: 0331-4111  e-ISSN: 2736-075X
Volume 20, No. 1, June 2022
Pages 78-93

DOI: 10.36108/NJSA/2202.02.0160

Policy implementation in the Context of Environmental Degradation, Insecurity and Poverty: The Case of Niger Delta Region, Nigeria

Tonbra Robert Odubo and Tonye Vivien Odubo
Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Bayelsa State, Nigeria


Until the discovery of crude oil in Nigeria, the economy of the country relied on Agriculture for sustenance. Upon this discovery, the oil sector started an economic domination in Nigeria leading to the neglect of Agriculture. Since the extraction and production of crude oil takes place in the Niger Delta, the region is bedevilled by ills caused by reckless crude oil exploration and production activities. This led to the emergence of artisanal crude oil refining as a coping strategy. Though with its attendant socio-economic benefits, the loss to the national economy was huge. Artisanal refining also destroys the environment and traditional livelihoods. The consequent decline in revenue earnings of the country caused the government to implement existing policy to halt artisanal oil refining and oil theft. Thus, the objective of this study is to identify the environmental effects of artisanal oil refining and government’s policy implementation on crude oil refining in the Niger Delta region. The study was conducted in six communities in three states namely; Oruma, Aguobiri (Bayelsa State), Ido, Bille (Rivers State), Egwa 1 and Tebujoh (Delta State). The study adopted the cross-sectional survey research design comprising 400 randomly selected respondents out of which 314 research participants responded. The findings indicate that government policies geared towards addressing the problem of artisanal refining and oil theft exacerbates the environmental, livelihood and security problems in the region leading to further pauperization, poverty and insecurity. It is thus recommended that government policies in the Niger Delta region should not only be geared towards increasing the nation’s earnings but also to enhance security and the socio-economic well-being of the people..

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